National-Popular Political (and Social) Movements and Governments (1918-1980)
They were political leaderships and governments of diverse ideological orientation, but they had some common denominators, representing attempts –some deeper than others – of national resistance and peoples' emancipation, postulating autonomous models of regional political and economic organization, as well as the strive for a joint regional action on the international stage to reduce the influence of global powers in the region. - First stage (1915-1930):
the Mexican revolution, the actions of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua, the Peruvian APRA, and the Argentine Radicalism. - Second stage (1930-1970):
the governments of Lázaro Cárdenas (México), Getúlio Vargas (Brazil), Juan Domingo Perón (Argentina, influenced by Christian Humanism and Personalism), Carlos Ibañez (Chile), Juan Velasco Alvarado (Peru), Jacobo Arbenz (Guatemala), Víctor Paz Estensoro (Bolivia), Juan Bosch (Dominican Rep.), among others.
In 1953 Perón proposed
 the "Continentalismo" (Continentalism
) that would originate from the geopolitical core of the second ABC agreement (Argentina, Brazil and Chile) as basic axis for a South American continental pole. National-Popular Governments and Leaderships of the Post-Washington Consensus Period (2000- )
The feature of the period are renewal and revitalization of the previous political movements, as well as the emergence of new ones, after two decades of neoliberal predominance (the 1980s and 1990s) in the region.
The trend is sometimes referred to as the "Pink Tide" of the 2000s
in mass media.
The heterogeneity of their governments and leaders also stands out as a characteristic of this period, which in some cases has implied important socio-economic achievements.
This period's schools of thought and thinkers have also been varied: ECLAC's Latin American Structuralism (Prebisch, Furtado, Ferrer), Dependency Theory (Cardoso, Faletto, dos Santos), the South American "Autonomist School" (Jaguaribe and Puig), Liberation Theology (Gutiérrez Merino, Boff, Dussel), Theology of the People (Methol Ferré, Scannone), to name a few.
In the geopolitical dimension of this period, the proposals to establish and revitalize platforms of joint regional action re-emerged and materialized with the establishment of UNASUR, CELAC, and ALBA, as the most outstanding examples.
The most prominent leaders of this period are Néstor and Cristina Kirchner (Argentina), Lula da Silva (Brazil), Evo Morales (Bolivia), Fernando Lugo (Paraguay), Tabaré Vázquez and José "Pepe" Mujica (Uruguay), Hugo Chávez (Venezuela), Rafael Correa (Ecuador), Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua).
For endogenous and exogenous reasons, this period was diluted by the end of the 2010s. The retroversion process (2010- ) is called the "Conservative Wave" or "Conservative Restoration
Nowadays, a renewed progressist cycle has formed. The debate on the possibility of a "Second Pink Tide" (2019) is active both in mass media and in the academic sphere, but such a debate exceeds this review.  at his speech entitled "Unidos o Dominados" (United or Dominated) delivered at the National War School of Argentina on November 11, 1953.