In the 1990s with the transition to the market economy, we had a mass penetration of imported PCs. Widespread software piracy made it difficult to develop the local industry. There was also a massive "brain leak" to the West, many people who had a good background in mathematics were emigrating because the economic situation was really gloomy at that time. Anyway, some pioneering software companies succeed on the market: 1C (accounting), ABBYY (image recognition), Kaspersky (security). The Internet started to penetrate in the mid-1990s, but it was limited by the low quality of telephony.
Around 2000s first important players appeared in the Internet economy. It was ".ru boom",
more or less simultaneously with ".com boom", when Yandex, Rambler, mail.ru, Ozon etc. were created. That time venture funding was coming from the West and local entrepreneurs (Ru-Funds, RUNA, DST Global, etc.). Mobile phones took off in 1999, by 2006 penetration is calculated at 100%. E-commerce in goods was handicapped by deficiencies in logistics. Russian post was famous for a very slow delivery, damaging and losing parcels, so you needed to find alternative channels.
Finally, we have a transition to the digital economy with a wide penetration of digital systems in corporations, mostly from international vendors. We have "import substitution" drive-in hardware and software since 2014 and geopolitical crisis since that time. It was not so successful as it was supposed to be but there were some achievements here. Finally, some Russian digital companies became the important global niche players, and Russian venture capital goes into global markets. Particularly, Digital Sky Technologies (DST Global) are a big player in Silicon Valley; we recently established a fund called Fort Ross Ventures
. It was funded by Sberbank and became a really significant project in Silicon Valley. In 2015 all big Russian cities passed the threshold of 70% Internet penetration. Thus the "primary digitalization" is generally completed. Now it comes to how the available digital base is actually used by consumers, business and government.