Uncontrolled international actors who can wage wars
The image of classical warfare has changed technologically. The increasingly dense global networking of sensitive infrastructures (transport, energy, communication, digital data) makes new forms of hybrid warfare possible.
The US Cyber Command, for example, successfully used the computer virus "Stuxnet" in 2007 to render about 1000 Iranian centrifuges for the enrichment of nuclear explosives unusable. Another example is the hacking attack on 2 December 2015 in western Ukraine, which completely cut off three electricity suppliers. These supplied electricity to 235,000 households, and after telephone systems were sabotaged at the same time, support services were also blocked.
While the first incident can be attributed to state action, for which there are regulations under international law, the second cyber attack cannot be safely attributed to state action. Although Russian actors were suspected of this hacking attack, this has not been proven.
A separate problem area is the development of AI by corporations such as Google or IBM, which are not known to be subjects of international law. The director of the Future of Humanity Institute in Oxford, Nick Bostrom, has described this correspondingly: "When we push the development of artificial intelligence, we are like children playing with dynamite".
This topic is closely related to algorithms such as Skynet, which are used to identify people, but also to autonomous weapons systems, nanotechnology, and more. For some time now, many countries around the world have been taking precautionary measures against "blackout scenarios" that are capable of plunging entire countries into chaos.
What is certain, however, is that actors who are uncontrolled under international law and have no subjectivity under international law, such as technology corporations, are enabled by the new technologies to wage wars and also to destabilize large states without being readily held accountable. If corporations form part of a Technostructure or otherwise from an organ of large states, as in China, for example, then in terms of international law the states themselves cannot be held accountable and the non-state actors cannot in fact be prosecuted.
However, it also follows that belligerent non-state actors that establish themselves in a state with weak or non-existent sovereignty can pose an effective threat to neighboring states without this having to be apparent.